Abstract—As the population is increasing day by day, the environment should be clean and hygienic. In most of the cities the overflowed garbage bins are creating an unhygienic environment. This will further lead to a rise of different types of diseases. This will degrade the standard of living. To overcome these situations an efficient smart garbage management method has to be developed. In recent decades there is a quick development in the rate of urbanization and therefore there is aneed of economical urban improvement designs. Presently utilizing new age innovation and vital approach, the idea of brilliant urban areas is coming up all around the globe. A brilliant city is inadequate without an efficient waste administration framework. This paper depicts the utilization of our model of “Smart Dustbin”in dealing with the waste accumulation management. The dustbin itself works as a robot, when it is full on command from authorized person it goes to pre-learned path (for first time user has to guide towards garbage dumping area) and empties itself. An authorized person gives command from Webpage where dustbin status is updated regularly.Keywords—garbage level detection; Google Maps API; Raspberry Pi; ultrasonic sensor; waste management.
In society, waste generation rate is exponentially rising in all the facets of society which is creating more and more threats to the living beings. Waste management is a crucial issue but often overlooked. Managing the waste is time consuming and requires a lot of effort. Due to less time and inefficient efforts, we see mismanagement in the garbage disposal system. The dustbins are noticed to be overflowing at many places. This overflow causes a dirty environment which also proves to be unhygienic. Solid waste management is a costly urban service that consumes around 30% of Municipal Corporation’s annual budget in many developing nations . Potential methods of reducing fuel consumption were studied and observed. As per the literature study, it is found that the consistent use of optimal collection routes could potentially save an average of 7.5 L of fuel per truck per day . This can be overcome using some modern methodologies along with the enhancement of smart cities. Trash has many ill-effects on the environment, direct as well as indirect. Direct effects cause physical harm on human beings and environment. Indirect effects contribute to the views and behavior that we as a society contribute to the problem. Pune is one of the fastest developing cities, according to Pune Municipal Corporation [PMC] Pune generates about 1300 to 1400 metric tons of waste per day. India generates approximately 133-770 tons of solid waste per day. Statistics also show that around 0.17 kg of waste is produced per person per day in small cities and around 0.62 kg per person per day in large cities. In the US alone, there are 200 million homes with each house having 2 different bins (regular thrash & recycle thrash) making the total bins count nearly 1.6 billion. The rest of the paper will be organized as follows. Section-II gives an overview of the papers referred for the proposed system. The detailed explanation of the proposed methodology is given in the section-III. The experimental result of the proposed method is explained in the section-IV. The overall conclusions of the smart dustbin are discussed in the section-V.
Krishna Nirde et. al.  proposes the idea of continuous monitoring of the garbage bins by the waste management authorities using the concept of Internet of Things. The bins are placed at different locations around the city. The system offers two remote real time monitoring: waste level sensing and weight sensing. The real time status of all the bins is available on a website to the waste management authorities. In this, the Programmable Interface controller sends the level and weight information to the radio frequency receiver using radio frequency transmitter. The Arduino board then processes the information that has been received at the RF receiver and updates the website with the filled bins directly through the internet shield.
Currently no automated system exists for the management of waste disposal. Balamurugan S. et. al.  shows an example of sending alert messages to authorities when the bins are completely filled. In this proposed system, the ultrasonic sensors detect the garbage level. This sensor node sends the information to the server node using Bluetooth. The server node then processes the information using Arduino and sends a message to the concerned authority. Further advances of measuring the emission of harmful gases is added to this project. This lets the people get understanding of what all gases are emitted in their surroundings. Dr. N. Sathish Kumar et. al.  proposes Smart Alert System for municipal waste management which provides an alert to the municipal web server based on the garbage level ensuring instant cleaning of dustbin. It puts forth an e-monitoring system which comprises of embedded system and web-based software assimilated with Internet of Things and Radio-Frequency Identification technology. Use of Radio-Frequency Identification technology, enhances the system by providing automatic identification of garbage filled in the dustbin and sends the status of clean-up to the server affirming that the work is done. An Android application is developed which receives notifications by Wi-Fi module. The alerts or notifications are sent on the app to the waste monitoring authorities. Remote monitoring of the cleaning process done by the workers can be done by using the Android application, thereby reducing the manual process of monitoring and verification. Vincenzo Catania et. al.  proposes another method in which two sensors namely the proximity sensor and the weight sensor are used. The proximity sensor is used to check the level and the weight sensor to gain the weight measure. A Zigbee module is used in this project to communicate physical values and measurement to the nearest light pole. A Google Maps API is used in this system to assign the work effectively to the garbage collecting system. As shown in figure 1, the city is divided in sections like a polygon. Each section is assigned a van. The van gets a notification in the daily time slot as to which bin must be emptied. These bins are displayed to the person in the garbage collecting van through Google Maps API.
Sateesh Reddy Avutu et. al.  proposes a robot works using ultrasonic sensors. The caster wheels are used to rotate the robot. The Arduino board is used to create a map from source to destination. The obstacle in front of the robot is detected by using an ultrasonic sensor. LCD module is used to display the current position and action to be taken by the robot. A route map is stored which gives the path from one room to another. S. Vinoth Kumar et. al.  proposed a system based on RFID and GSM. In this system, the garbage level is measured using ultrasonic sensors and weight is measured using force sensors. When the measured value of the sensors crosses the threshold level, the red LED on the dustbin turns on which indicate that the dustbin is full. Else, the green LED is on. The coordinates of the location where the dustbin is located is sent to the authorities using GSM system. Once the garbage collecting authorities login to the android application, a list of all the dustbins along with their garbage level and location will be displayed on the screen. Saurabh Dugdhe et. al.  has proposed the idea of route optimization for the garbage collecting vehicle. The level sensors detect the garbage threshold and MQ4 gas sensor that is highly sensitive to methane gas detects the toxic level of the garbage. The status of the bin is sent to the workstation. The garbage collecting van then chooses the optimized route to collect the garbage. The days summary is then sent to the server and reports are generated based on the information provided
In the proposed system, there are two major components that are the smart dustbin and the garbage collecting van. Two ultrasonic sensors are positioned, one on the rim of the dustbin container and the second at the base of the robot facing forward. They are used for garbage level detection and obstacle detection respectively. The flowchart for the proposed system can be represented as shown in figure 2: If the garbage level reaches the threshold, the dustbin moves to its destination from where the van can empty the contents. This path is unique for every dustbin, as the robot has to be trained by the owner once in the beginning and it will remember the same path unless a new path is over written onto the memory. Once the contents of the bin are emptied, the dustbin moves back to its original position. The garbage collecting van can see the locations of all the bins that are to be collected. Dustbins with more than the threshold level of garbage are highlighted as opposed to partially filled bins, which don’t need to be collected. This helps in better time management and fuel efficiency. As depicted in figure 3, it shows two buildings which are using the proposed system. The buildings containing a vent system collects the garbage at position ‘A’. At a particular time before the arrival of garbage van, the garbage level of the dustbin is measured. If the garbage level is above a particular threshold level, it moves to destination ‘B’. The garbage collecting van then gets a notification of the dustbins to becollected on the application built using Google Maps API. Once the dustbin is emptied, it returns back to position ‘A’.
Advantages of the proposed system as shown in figure 4 are it has minimum human intervention. It will lead to a clean and green environment. It will have reduction in fuel consumption of the garbage collecting van asit is already notified about which dustbin is ready to be collected. This all will conclude with the safe disposal of hazardous waste.
The experimental setup of the smart bin is shown in figure 5. The components used for the model are as described below: A. Raspberry pi zero W: Raspberry pi zero W is a controller board based on ARM. It has a 512MB of RAM and a 1 memory card slot. It comes with 40 GPIO pins. Itcomes with an inbuilt 802.11 b/g/n Wireless LAN.B. Motor: A DC geared motor of 10 rpm 12V. is used inthe proposed system. C. Ultrasonic sensor(HC-SR04): The ultrasonic sensors are used for two purposes. One, to check the level ofgarbage in the dustbin. Second, to detect the obstacles infront of the robot while moving from source to destination and back. D. Motor Driver(L293D):It takes a low current control signal and turns it into a higher current signal to drive the motor and acts as an amplifier
Smart dustbins are a step in the direction of bringingabout a change in the current garbage disposal systems.Sensors for level and weight detection make sure that thedustbin container does not overflow with garbage. Uponfilling of the container, the dustbin moves to its destinationvia a predefined path, from where the garbage collecting vanwill empty its contents. This system can be implemented invarious situations that require either high manual labor(shopping malls and residential complexes) or pose serioushealth risks (hospitals and laboratories).